5.3.7: 1910 - heden - Foreign trade


In the course of the twentieth century, the trade balance with other countries improved gradually. At the beginning of the century, there was a limited amount of export from the Netherlands. Whilst the imports continued to increase, the Netherlands managed to regain its position in international academic publishing, especially after the Second World War.

The import book trade had since the last quarter of the nineteenth century been in the hand of just a few specialist importers who were mainly specialists in a certain language area, for instance Feikema Caarelsen and Nilsson & Lamm for French and Italian and J.G. Robbers and Kirberger & Kesper for English. There was, however, also a division in the nature of the material, to the extent that one importer (N.V. Van Ditmar's Newspaper Import and Kiosk Company) traded almost all newspapers and magazines. The larger bookshops bought their books directly from foreign publishers. Dutch publishers saw importers as competition and they were not allowed to join the Koninklijke Nederlandse Uitgeversbond (Royal Netherlands Publishers' Union).

The international orientation of the Netherlands in the period between the wars also included the book trade. Popular fiction in particular was imported, which, in the twenties and thirties, led to the fear that these books, of a 'lesser literary quality' would be unfair competition for the Dutch book trade, which was already suffering as a result of overproduction.

After the Second World War, during which only books from Germany had been imported, the imports increased again. The annual book fairs (Frankfurter Buchmesse) and international trade fairs played an important part, with the trade in books increasingly making way for the trade in rights. Exhibitions of English books in particular were organised to stimulate export from the participating countries and to re-establish contacts with the rest of the world. English books, which had already been gaining an advantage over French and German books, flourished as never before. This was true for both fiction and academic books. Besides bookshops which exclusively sold English books (in the Randstad urban area), almost all bookshops in the Netherlands offered a considerable range of English books. In the early nineties, the importance of the export market (the Netherlands imported the largest number of English book per capita) led to a phenomenon called the 'early export paperback'. By publishing an early paperback edition of a new British or American novel in the Netherlands, foreign publishers tried to skim the market before the Dutch translation was published. At the end of the century, Nilsson & Lamm and Nijgh & Van Ditmar were the two largest importers.

With the exception of Flanders, there was no significant export market for Dutch books (as an overseas territory the Dutch East Indies did not count as an export market). There was one, however, for non-Dutch academic books. At the end of the nineteenth century, the international academic publishing business was showing signs of recovery, with companies such as Nijhoff, Brill and Sijthoff. In the twentieth century, especially after the Second World War, it grew strongly, with Elsevier, Mouton, North-Holland Publishing Company, Rodopi, etc. At the end of the century Reed Elsevier and Wolters Kluwer were among the top academic publishing companies in the world, but only a small percentage of their production took place in the Netherlands.

Besides academic publishing houses, international academic bookshops also flourished after the Second World War. As they were known for their international orientation, many foreign institutional customers bought from Dutch international bookshops; Houtschild, Nijhoff International, Erasmus, Nedbook and others were active all over the world.


author: A.H. van der Weel
 
 


Foreign trade



Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Dijkzigt
Name: Sophia Kinderziekenhuis
Name: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (1995-1997)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1997
Period: geen


Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Dijkzigt - biographical data

Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Dijkzigt
Name: Afdeling Immunologie, Erasmus Universiteit/Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam
Name: Vakgroep Revalidatie EUR/AZR
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis, Afd. PR en voorlichting
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis
Name: University Hospital Dijkzigt, Dept. of Allergology
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Afdeling Hematologie
Name: Afdeling Immunologie, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam/Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam
Name: University Hospital [Dijkzigt], Dept. of Orthopaedics]
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Dijkzigt Rotterdam
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam
Name: Reproduktie AZR/EUR
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Afdeling Anesthesiologie
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1971 - 1998
Period: 19XX


Atlas, Environmental Association, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Atlas, Environmental Association, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1995
Period: geen


Atlas, Environmental Association of the Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Atlas, Environmental Association of the Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1995
Period: geen


Atlas, Environmental Association of the Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Atlas, Environmental Association of the Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


Boekhandel Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Boekhandel Erasmus
address: IJmuiden
Period: 1997 - 1997
Period: geen


Bureau ERASMUS cultuur en communicatie - biographical data

Name: Bureau ERASMUS cultuur en communicatie
address: Geldrop
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


CASP, Erasmus University, Faculty of Social Sciences - biographical data

Name: CASP, Erasmus University, Faculty of Social Sciences
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1985 - 1985
Period: geen


CASP, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: CASP, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1980 - 1980
Period: geen


CASP, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: CASP, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1987 - 1987
Period: geen


Centre for Advanced Small Business Economics (CASBEC), Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam) - biographical data

Name: Centre for Advanced Small Business Economics (CASBEC), Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Centre for Development Planning Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Centre for Development Planning Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1974 - 1994
Period: geen


Centre for Health Policy and Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Centre for Health Policy and Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1998 - 1998
Period: geen


Centre of Business History (CBG), Erasmus University Rotterdam) - biographical data

Name: Centre of Business History (CBG), Erasmus University Rotterdam)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1995
Period: geen


Comité voor de herdenking van Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Comité voor de herdenking van Erasmus
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1936 - 1936
Period: geen


Committee for Postgraduate Medical Education, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Committee for Postgraduate Medical Education, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Comparative Asian Studies Program, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Comparative Asian Studies Program, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1984 - 1984
Period: geen


Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1985 - 1986
Period: geen


Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Faculty of Social Science, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Faculty of Social Science, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1986 - 1986
Period: geen


Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1987 - 1987
Period: geen


Copynomie Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Copynomie Erasmus
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1996
Period: geen


Crisis Onderzoek Team - biographical data

Name: Crisis Onderzoek Team
Name: Crisis Research Center, Leiden University
Name: Crisis Onderzoek Team, Rijks Universiteit Leiden, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Name: Crisis Research Center, Leiden University
Name: Crisis Onderzoek Team, Rijks Universiteit Leiden, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Name: Crisis Research Center, Leiden University
Name: Crisis Onderzoek Team, Rijks Universiteit Leiden, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Name: Universiteit Leiden (1997-1999)
Name: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Universiteit Leiden (1993-1996)
address: Leiden
Period: 1993 - 1999
Period: geen


Department of Economics, Faculty of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Economics, Faculty of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Department of Educational Research, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Educational Research, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1979 - 1979
Period: geen


Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, [Erasmus Medical Center] - biographical data

Name: Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, [Erasmus Medical Center]
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1999 - 1999
Period: geen


Department of Immunology, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Department of Immunology, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Department of Immunology, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Immunology, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1995
Period: geen


Department of Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Care, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Department of Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Care, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


Department of] Medical Informatics, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Department of] Medical Informatics, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Department of Medical Technology, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Department of Medical Technology, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1984 - 1984
Period: geen


Department of Modern Japanese Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Modern Japanese Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1992
Period: geen


Department of Public Health and Social Medicine/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Public Health and Social Medicine/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1997 - 1997
Period: geen


Department of Public Health, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Centre for Health Policy and Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Department of Public Health, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Centre for Health Policy and Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Dept. of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Dept. of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


Dept. of Immunology, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Dept. of Immunology, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


Département de Santé Publique et Médecine Sociale (SP&MS), Université Erasmus Rotterdam) - biographical data

Name: Département de Santé Publique et Médecine Sociale (SP&MS), Université Erasmus Rotterdam)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1992
Period: geen


Econometric Institute, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Econometric Institute, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1956 - 1998
Period: geen


Economic Geography Institute of Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Economic Geography Institute of Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1991 - 1997
Period: geen


Economic Geography Institute of Erasmus University Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Economic Geography Institute of Erasmus University Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1993 - 1995
Period: geen


Economisch Geografisch Instituut, Erasmus Univ. - biographical data

Name: Economisch Geografisch Instituut, Erasmus Univ.
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1979 - 1988
Period: geen


Economisch Geografisch Instituut, Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Economisch Geografisch Instituut, Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1979 - 1990
Period: geen


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1997
Period: geen


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Raalten, Jan Evert van
Name: Raalten, Frank Jan van
address: Santpoort
address: Haarlem
address: IJmuiden
Period: 1937-1944
Period: 1944-1945
Period: 1945-1954
Period: 1954-....


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Horodisch, Abraham
Name: Vossiek, H.
Name: Garnman, H.
Name: Tschenett, K.
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1934-....


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Schmidt, J. P.
address: Den Haag
Period: 1946-1950


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Nunnikhoven, Martinus Johannes
address: Hilversum
Period: 1924-1925


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Boer-Lampusiak, J.
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1960-1963


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
Name: Kloprogge-Beuken, S. J. G. B.
address: Heer
address: Maastricht
Period: 1968-1976
Period: 1976-1998


Erasmus - biographical data

Name: Erasmus
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1957 - 1994
Period: geen


Erasmus Alumni Vereniging - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Alumni Vereniging
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Erasmus Alumnibureau - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Alumnibureau
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1996 - 1996
Period: geen


Erasmus Aniquariaat en Boekhandel - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Aniquariaat en Boekhandel
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1948 - 1948
Period: geen


Erasmus Antiquariaat en Boekhandel - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Antiquariaat en Boekhandel
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1960 - 1984
Period: geen


Erasmus Booksellers - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Booksellers
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1964 - 1977
Period: geen


Erasmus Buchhandlung - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Buchhandlung
address: Amsterdam
Period: 1962 - 1969
Period: geen


Erasmus Center for Art and Culture - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Center for Art and Culture
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1999 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus Center for Sociolegal Tax Research - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Center for Sociolegal Tax Research
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1995 - 1995
Period: geen


Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1998 - 1998
Period: geen


Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centre for Environmental Studies, Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1990 - 1990
Period: geen


Erasmus Centre for Labour Law and Industrial Relations - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centre for Labour Law and Industrial Relations
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1998 - 1998
Period: geen


Erasmus Centre For Labour Market Analysis (ECLA) - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centre For Labour Market Analysis (ECLA)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1997 - 1997
Period: geen


Erasmus Centre for Sociolegal Tax Research - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centre for Sociolegal Tax Research
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1997 - 1997
Period: geen


Erasmus Centrum voor Kunst- en Cultuurwetenschappen - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Centrum voor Kunst- en Cultuurwetenschappen
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus, Desiderius - biographical data

Name: Erasmus, Desiderius
address: Rotterdam 1672


Erasmus Finance & Insurance Centre - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Finance & Insurance Centre
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1998 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus Forum - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Forum
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1992
Period: geen


Erasmus Huis - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Huis
address: Jakarta
Period: 1987 - 1987
Period: geen


Erasmus Insurance Center - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Insurance Center
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Erasmus Liga - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Liga
address: Den Haag
Period: 1973 - 1987
Period: 19XX


Erasmus Publishing - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Publishing
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1991 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus studiecentrum voor milieukunde - biographical data

Name: Erasmus studiecentrum voor milieukunde
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1986 - 1998
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1974 - 1995
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ., Economic Geography Institute - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ., Economic Geography Institute
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1994 - 1994
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ., Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ., Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1980 - 1980
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1973 - 1995
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1988 - 1988
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Geneeskunde. Inst. Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Geneeskunde. Inst. Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1974 - 1974
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Bureau Onderwijszaken - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Bureau Onderwijszaken
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1989 - 1989
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, (Inter)faculteit bedrijfskunde, Rotterdam School of management) - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, (Inter)faculteit bedrijfskunde, Rotterdam School of management)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1985 - 1985
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam. Macro-Economic Policy Group - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam. Macro-Economic Policy Group
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1986 - 1986
Period: geen


Erasmus Univ., Subfaculteit der Sociaal-Culturele Wetenschappen, Afdeling AOA - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Univ., Subfaculteit der Sociaal-Culturele Wetenschappen, Afdeling AOA
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1981 - 1981
Period: geen


Erasmus Universiteit - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Universiteit
address: Rotterdam


Erasmus Universiteit Groep - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Universiteit Groep
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1997 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Name: Erasmus Universiteit
Name: Universiteit Rotterdam
Name: Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam (1995-1997)
Name: Crisis Onderzoek Team, Universiteit Leiden (1993-1996)
Name: Dr Daniël den Hoed Kliniek
Name: Goethe-Institut (1985)
Name: Instutuut voor Verslavingsonderzoek (IVO) (1999)
Name: Reproduktie Woudestein (1984)
Name: Rijksuniversiteit Limburg (1991)
Name: Rotterdam School of Management (1991)
Name: Rotterdams Instituut voor Sociologisch, Bestuurskundig en Milieukundig Onderzoek (1985-1999)
Name: Sophia Kinderziekenhuis (1986)
Name: Werkgroep Hoofd-halstumoren Rotterdam van het Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam-Dijkzicht (1991)
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1958 - 1999
Period: 197X
Period: 199X
Period: 198X
Period: 19XX
Period: 198X


Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
address: Dordrecht
Period: 1982 - 1982
Period: geen


Erasmus Universiteits Drukkerij - biographical data

Name: Erasmus Universiteits Drukkerij
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1988 - 1994
Period: geen


Erasmus, Universiteitsdrukkerij - biographical data

Name: Erasmus, Universiteitsdrukkerij
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1990 - 1990
Period: geen


Erasmus University - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1974 - 1998
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Centre for Development Planning - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Centre for Development Planning
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1975 - 1982
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Centre for International Energy Studies - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Centre for International Energy Studies
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1985 - 1986
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Centre for Research in Business Economics - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Centre for Research in Business Economics
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1981 - 1981
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Comparative Asian Studies Programme - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Comparative Asian Studies Programme
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1980 - 1982
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Department for Press and Public Relations - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Department for Press and Public Relations
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1990 - 1990
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Department of Economics - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Department of Economics
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1982 - 1982
Period: geen


Erasmus University. Department of Immunology - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University. Department of Immunology
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1992 - 1999
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Department of Public Health - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Department of Public Health
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1997 - 1997
Period: geen


Erasmus University, Department of Sociology, SRM-documentationCentre - biographical data

Name: Erasmus University, Department of Sociology, SRM-documentationCentre
address: Rotterdam
Period: 1976 - 1976
Period: geen


Images about Erasmus


Books from the librije of Edam